Competence at Work book. Read 7 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Provides analysis of jobs, based on 20 years of research usin. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance / L.M. Spencer, hijo, S.M. Spencer. | Obra sobre la metodología de. Editorial Reviews. From the Publisher. Provides analysis of jobs, based on 20 years of research using the McClelland/McBer job competence assessment.
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Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. Provides analysis of jobs, based on 20 years of research using the McClelland/McBer job competence assessment (JCA) methodology. Includes generic job. Jul 1, Download PDF Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance, PDF Download Competence at Work: Models for Superior.
Spencer is the author of Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance , published by Wiley. Request permission to reuse content from this site. Undetected country. NO YES. Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance. Description About the Author Permissions Table of contents. Selected type: Added to Your Shopping Cart. Spencer ISBN: Includes generic job models for entrepreneurs, technical professionals, salespeople, service workers and corporate managers.
Suggests future directions and uses for competency research. About the Author Lyle M.
For competencies where employees are lacking, they can learn. This will allow organizations to know potentially what resources they may need to help the employee develop and learn those competencies. Competencies can distinguish and differentiate your organization from your competitors.
While two organizations may be alike in financial results, the way in which the results were achieve could be different based on the competencies that fit their particular strategy and organizational culture. Lastly, competencies can provide a structured model that can be used to integrate management practices throughout the organization.
Competencies that align their recruiting, performance management, training and development and reward practices to reinforce key behaviors that the organization values.
Dreyfus and Dreyfus on competency development[ edit ] Dreyfus and Dreyfus  introduced nomenclature for the levels of competence in competency development.
The causative reasoning of such a language of levels of competency may be seen in their paper on Calculative Rationality titled, "From Socrates to Expert Systems: The Limits and Dangers of Calculative Rationality".
As competencies apply to careers as well as jobs, lifelong competency development is linked with personal development as a management concept. And it requires a special environment, where the rules are necessary in order to introduce novices, but people at a more advanced level of competency will systematically break the rules if the situations requires it.
This environment is synonymously described using terms such as learning organization , knowledge creation, self-organizing and empowerment. Within a specific organization or professional community, professional competency is frequently valued.
They are usually the same competencies that must be demonstrated in a job interview. But today there is another way of looking at it: that there are general areas of occupational competency required to retain a post, or earn a promotion.
For all organizations and communities there is a set of primary tasks that competent people have to contribute to all the time. For a university student, for example, the primary tasks could be: Handling theory Handling the information of the assignment The four general areas of competency are: Meaning Competency: The person assessed must be able to identify with the purpose of the organization or community and act from the preferred future in accordance with the values of the organization or community.
Relation Competency: The ability to create and nurture connections to the stakeholders of the primary tasks must be shown. Learning Competency: The person assessed must be able to create and look for situations that make it possible to experiment with the set of solutions that make it possible to complete the primary tasks and reflect on the experience.
Change Competency: The person assessed must be able to act in new ways when it will promote the purpose of the organization or community and make the preferred future come to life. McClelland and occupational competency[ edit ] The Occupational Competency movement was initiated by David McClelland in the s with a view to moving away from traditional attempts to describe competency in terms of knowledge , skills and attitudes and to focus instead on the specific self-image, values, traits, and motive dispositions i.
It should be noted that different competencies predict outstanding performance in different roles, and that there is a limited number of competencies that predict outstanding performance in any given job or role.
Thus, a trait that is a "competency" for one job might not predict outstanding performance in a different role. There is hence research on competencies needed in specific jobs or contexts.
Nevertheless, there have been developments in research relating to the nature, development, and assessment of high-level competencies in homes, schools, and workplaces. In these fusions, the degree of belonging to the resulting group expresses the extent to which these competencies are possessed.
Benefits of competencies[ edit ] Competency models can help organizations align their initiatives to their overall business strategy. By aligning competencies to business strategies, organizations can better recruit and select employees for their organizations. Competencies have been become a precise way for employers to distinguish superior from average or below average performance.
The reason for this is because competencies extend beyond measuring baseline characteristics and or skills used to define and assess job performance. In addition to recruitment and selection, a well sound Competency Model will help with performance management, succession planning and career development. Focuses training and development plans to address missing competencies or raise level of proficiency Enables people to focus on the skills, knowledge and characteristics that have the most impact on job effectiveness Ensures that training and development opportunities are aligned with organizational needs Makes the most effective use of training and development time and dollars Provides a competency framework for ongoing coaching and feedback, both development and remedial Performance management: Provides regular measurement of targeted behaviors and performance outcomes linked to job competency profile critical factors.
How we treat the patient is part of the patient's treatment. Technical competencies: Depending on the position, both technical and performance capabilities should be weighed carefully as employment decisions are made. For example, organizations that tend to hire or promote solely on the basis of technical skills, i. As such, it is important that they be defined in a measurable behavioral context in order to validate applicability and the degree of expertise e.
They are often technical or operational in nature e. Unlike leadership characteristics, management characteristics can be learned and developed with the proper training and resources. Competencies in this category should demonstrate pertinent behaviors for management to be effective. Examples: Initiative and creativity Plans work and carries out tasks without detailed instructions; makes constructive suggestions; prepares for problems or opportunities in advance; undertakes additional responsibilities; responds to situations as they arise with minimal supervision; creates novel solutions to problems; evaluates new technology as potential solutions to existing problems.
Judgement Makes sound decisions; bases decisions on fact rather than emotion; analyzes problems skillfully; uses logic to reach solutions. Quality of Work Maintains high standards despite pressing deadlines; does work right the first time; corrects own errors; regularly produces accurate, thorough, professional work.
Reliability Personally responsible; completes work in a timely, consistent manner; works hours necessary to complete assigned work; is regularly present and punctual; arrives prepared for work; is committed to doing the best job possible; keeps commitments.
Applies knowledge to identify issues and internal problems; works to develop additional technical knowledge and skills. Quantity of work Produces an appropriate quantity of work; does not get bogged down in unnecessary detail; able to manage multiple projects; able to determine project urgency in a meaningful and practical way; organizes and schedules people and tasks. Communication Writes and speaks effectively, using conventions proper to the situation; states own opinions clearly and concisely; demonstrates openness and honesty; listens well during meetings and feedback sessions; explains reasoning behind own opinions; asks others for their opinions and feedback; asks questions to ensure understanding; exercises a professional approach with others using all appropriate tools of communication; uses consideration and tact when offering opinions.
Problem solving Anticipates problems; sees how a problem and its solution will affect other units; gathers information before making decisions; weighs alternatives against objectives and arrives at reasonable decisions; adapts well to changing priorities, deadlines and directions; works to eliminate all processes which do not add value; is willing to take action, even under pressure, criticism or tight deadlines; takes informed risks; recognizes and accurately evaluates the signs of a problem; analyzes current procedures for possible improvements; notifies supervisor of problems in a timely manner.
Attention to detail Is alert in a high-risk environment; follows detailed procedures and ensures accuracy in documentation and data; carefully monitors gauges, instruments or processes; concentrates on routine work details; organizes and maintains a system of records. Flexibility Remains open-minded and changes opinions on the basis of new information; performs a wide variety of tasks and changes focus quickly as demands change; manages transitions from task to task effectively; adapts to varying customer needs.
Organization Able to manage multiple projects; able to determine project urgency in a practical way; uses goals to guide actions; creates detailed action plans; organizes and schedules people and tasks effectively.